PRINCIPLE OF MAXIMUM SOCIAL ADVANTAGE – PUBLIC FINANCE

Financial activities of the government have a significant impact on the production, consumption, distribution and income pattern of a country. The Principle of Maximum Social Advantage is the principle that governs the operation of public finance (financial activities of the government) to maximize the economic welfare of the society as a whole.

According to Hugh Dalton – The best system of Public Finance is that which secures the maximum social advantage from its fiscal operations. He propounded the Principle of Maximum Social Advantage and stated the following:

  1. Government should collect money and spend it to maximize the welfare of people
  2. When taxes are imposed, dis-utility is created and when expenditure is done, utility is created.
  3. Government must adjust its revenues & expenditures in such a way that the surplus of utility is maximum and dis-utility is minimum.

Assumptions of Principle of Maximum Social Advantage

  1. All taxes result in sacrifice. All public expenditure lead to benefit.
  2. Public revenue consists of only taxes and government has no other source of income.
  3. Government has no deficit or surplus budget
  4. Public expenditure is subjected to law of diminishing marginal utility therefore Marginal Social Benefit keeps on diminishing.
  5. Taxes are subjected to increase Marginal Social Sacrifice.

Principle of Maximum Social Advantage

Dalton stated the extent to which public expenditure should be done and taxes should be collected. According to Dalton, public expenditure should be done till the point where the advantage of a unit increase public expenditure to the society is counter balanced by the disadvantage of a unit increase in revenue or taxation.

With every additional unit of tax raised by the public, the burden of tax keeps on increasing while the quantum of benefits keep on decreasing. Hence public expenditure should be carried out till the point of maximum social advantage.

He gave the following two concepts:

MSS – Marginal Social Sacrifice – It is the amount of sacrifice undergone by public (tax payer) due to imposition of one additional unit of tax.

MSB – Marginal Social Benefit – Benefits enjoyed by the public by one additional unit of public expenditure.

Point of Maximum Social Advantage

The point of maximum social advantage is the point where Marginal Social Sacrifice cuts the Marginal Social Benefit curve. This is the optimum limit of State’s Public Finance activity.

It is the point at which the marginal utility from public expenditure equals marginal dis-utility due to taxation. Hence, at this point the benefit derived from the last unit of money spent on public expenditure equals the sacrifice imposed in raising that one addition unit of revenue from the public.

On the basis of the Principle of Maximum Social Advantage

The resources of the government must be distributed using the Equi-marginal principle i.e. marginal return of satisfaction must be same for all.

Taxation must be done on the basis of principle of least aggregate sacrifice i.e. the marginal utility of money paid in taxation must be equal to all tax payers.

How to achieve maximum social advantage

In order to achieve the objective of Maximum Social Advantage:

  • Marginal Social Benefit = Marginal Social Sacrifice
  • Marginal Social Benefit from each unit of public expenditure must be equal
  • Marginal Social Sacrifice of each unit of tax must be equal

b = Social Advantage; t = taxation; e = Public Expenditure; d = small change;
s = Social Sacrifice; 1,2,3…n = various sources of taxation

Limitations of Principle of Maximum Social Advantage

  1. Utility cannot be measured quantitatively.
  2. It is difficult to measure tax burden
  3. It is difficult to measure social benefit
  4. Equi-marginal principle is not applicable to Public Expenditure (Social Benefit)
  5. Policy of functional finance does not permit MSB=MSS

COMPUTER & IT APPLICATION VIVA QUESTIONS

Some Important Questions of Computer Fundamentals and It`s Applications Viva Questions.

  1. Differentiate between compiler and interpreter.
  2. Why is intranet, extranet and internet?
  3. Describe the data types in MS Access?
  4. What is the difference between animation and transition?
  5. What do you mean by master slide in Power Point Presentation?
  6. Write the uses of thesaurus in MS Word?
  7. Define algorithm and flowchart.
  8. What is software? Explain different types of computer software with examples.
  9. What is programming languages? Name the types of Programming Language.
  10. What is mail merge?
  11. Discuss and differentiate between object embedding and object linking.
  12. Defines the term cell referencing. Explain the types of cell referencing available in MS-Excel.
  13. Why MS PowerPoint is considered as powerful tools for presentations in comparison to MS-Word or MS-Excel.
  14. What are the features of Presentation?
  15. Define the term primary key, database and reports.
  16. What are the various applications of the internet?
  17. What is Search Engine? Explain how internet is useful for education and business.
  18. Explain the importance of internet in the current context of business operation
  19. What do you mean by cache and volatile memory?
  20. Explain the term DBMS and RDBMS.
  21. What do you mean by pseudo code?
  22. What do you mean by pivot table?
  23. Outline some of the myths about internet.
  24. List the layers of TCP/IP and OSI models.
  25. What is the use of macro in MSWORD?
  26. Outline the three aspect of ER-Diagram.
  27. What are the components of database system?
  28. What do you mean by computer network? Outline its types.
  29. List the different types of network topologies.
  30. What do you mean by computer.

Data Structures and Algorithms Multiple Choice Questions:- Part Three

  1. Which of the following data structure is non-linear type?

A) Strings
B) Lists
C) Stacks
D) Tree

Ans:- (D) Tree

2. Which of the following data structure is linear type?

A) Array
B) Tree
C) Graphs
D) Hierarchy

Ans:- (A) Array

3. The logical or mathematical model of a particular organization of data is called a ………

A) Data structure
B) Data arrangement
C) Data configuration
D) Data formation

Ans:- (A) Data structure

4. The simplest type of data structure is ………………

A) Multidimensional array
B) Linear array
C) Two dimensional array
D) Three dimensional array

Ans:- (B) Linear array

5. Linear arrays are also called ……………….

A) Straight line array
B) One-dimensional array
C) Vertical array
D) Horizontal array

Ans:- (B) One-dimensional array

6. Arrays are best data structures …………

A) For relatively permanent collections of data.
B) For the size of the structure and the data in the structure are constantly changing
C) For both of above situation
D) For none of the above

Ans:- (A) For relatively permanent collections of data.

7. Which of the following data structures are indexed structures?

A) Linear arrays
B) Linked lists
C) Graphs
D) Trees

Ans:- (A) Linear arrays

8. node in a linked list has two pairs of ………….. and ……………….

A) Link field and information field
B) Link field and avail field
C) Avail field and information field
D) Address field and link field

Ans:- (A) Link field and information field

9. A …………………… does not keep track of address of every element in the list.

A) Stack
B) String
C) Linear array
D) Queue

Ans:- (C) Linear array

10. When does top value of the stack changes?

A) Before deletion
B) While checking underflow
C) At the time of deletion
D) After deletion

Ans:- (D) After deletion

11. Which of the following data structure is non-linear type?

A) Strings
B) Lists
C) Stacks
D) Tree

Ans:- (D) Tree

12. Which of the following data structure is linear type?

A) Array
B) Tree
C) Graphs
D) Hierarchy

Ans:- (A) Array

13. The logical or mathematical model of a particular organization of data is called a ………

A) Data structure
B) Data arrangement
C) Data configuration
D) Data formation

Ans:- (A) Data structure

14. The simplest type of data structure is ………………

A) Multidimensional array
B) Linear array
C) Two dimensional array
D) Three dimensional array

Ans:- (B) Linear array

15. Linear arrays are also called ……………….

A) Straight line array
B) One-dimensional array
C) Vertical array
D) Horizontal array

Ans:- (B) One-dimensional array

16. Arrays are best data structures …………

A) For relatively permanent collections of data.
B) For the size of the structure and the data in the structure are constantly changing
C) For both of above situation
D) For none of the above

Ans:- (A) For relatively permanent collections of data.

17. Which of the following data structures are indexed structures?

A) Linear arrays
B) Linked lists
C) Graphs
D) Trees

Ans:- (A) Linear arrays

18. Each node in a linked list has two pairs of ………….. and ……………….

A) Link field and information field
B) Link field and avail field
C) Avail field and information field
D) Address field and link field

Ans:- (A) Link field and information field

19. A …………………… does not keep track of address of every element in the list.

A) Stack
B) String
C) Linear array
D) Queue

Ans:- (C) Linear array

20. When does top value of the stack changes?

A) Before deletion
B) While checking underflow
C) At the time of deletion
D) After deletion

Ans:- (D) After deletion

21. Arrays are best data structures

A) for relatively permanent collections of data
B) for the size of the structure and the data in the structure are constantly changing
C) for both of above situation
D) for none of above situation

Ans:- (A) for relatively permanent collections of data

22. Which of the following data structure is not linear data structure?

A) Arrays
B) Linked lists
C) Both of the above
D) None of the above

Ans:- (D) None of the above

23. The disadvantage in using a circular linked list is …………………….

A) It is possible to get into infinite loop.
B) Last node points to first node.
C) Time consuming
D) Requires more memory space

Ans:- (A) It is possible to get into infinite loop.

24. A linear list in which each node has pointers to point to the predecessor and successors nodes is called as ..

A) Singly Linked List
B) Circular Linked List
C) Doubly Linked List
D) Linear Linked List

Ans:- (C) Doubly Linked List

25. A ……………….. is a linear list in which insertions and deletions are made to from either end of the structure.

A) circular queue
B) random of queue
C) priority
D) dequeue

Ans:- (D) dequeue

26. In a priority queue, insertion and deletion takes place at ………………

A) front, rear end
B) only at rear end
C) only at front end
D) any position

Ans:- (D) any position

27. The time complexity of quick sort is …………..

A) O(n)
B) O(n2)
C) O(n log n)
D) O(log n )

Ans:- (C) O(n log n)

28. Which of the following is an application of stack?

A) finding factorial
B) tower of Hanoi
C) infix to postfix conversion
D) all of the above

Ans:- (D) all of the above

29. The data structure which is one ended is ………………

A) queue
B) stack
C) tree
D) graph

Ans:- (B) stack

30. A list which displays the relationship of adjacency between elements is said to be

A) queue
B) stack
C) tree
D) graph

Ans:- (A) queue

Data Structures and Algorithms Multiple Choice Questions:- Part Two

  1. In a queue, the initial values of front pointer f rare pointer r should be …….. and ……….. respectively.

A) 0 and 1
B) 0 and -1
C) -1 and 0
D) 1 and 0

Ans:- (B) 0 and -1

2. In a circular queue the value of r will be ..

A) r=r+1
B) r=(r+1)% [QUEUE_SIZE – 1]
C) r=(r+1)% QUEUE_SIZE
D) r=(r-1)% QUEUE_SIZE

Ans:- (C) r=(r+1)% QUEUE_SIZE

3. Which of the following statement is true?
i) Using singly linked lists and circular list, it is not possible to traverse the list backwards.
ii) To find the predecessor, it is required to traverse the list from the first node in case of singly linked list.

A) i-only
B) ii-only
C) Both i and ii
D) None of both

Ans:- (C) Both i and ii

4. The advantage of …………….. is that they solve the problem if sequential storage representation. But disadvantage in that is they are sequential lists.

A) Lists
B) Linked Lists
C) Trees
D) Queues

Ans:- (B) Linked Lists

5. What will be the value of top, if there is a size of stack STACK_SIZE is 5

A) 5
B) 6
C) 4
D) None

Ans:- (C) 4

6. ………… is not the operation that can be performed on queue.

A) Insertion
B) Deletion
C) Retrieval
D) Traversal

Ans:- (D) Traversal

7. is an extra element at the head of the list called a ……….

A) Antinel
B) Sentinel
C) List header
D) List head

Ans:- (B) Sentinel

8. A graph is a collection of nodes, called ………. And line segments called arcs or ……….. that connect pair of nodes.

A) vertices, edges
B) edges, vertices
C) vertices, paths
D) graph node, edges

Ans:- (A) vertices, edges

9. A ……….. is a graph that has weights of costs associated with its edges.

A) Network
B) Weighted graph
C) Both A and B
D) None A and B

Ans:- (C) Both A and B

10. In general, the binary search method needs no more than ……………. comparisons.

A) [log2n]-1
B) [logn]+1
C) [log2n]
D) [log2n]+1

Ans:- (D) [log2n]+1

11. Which of the following is not the type of queue?

A) Ordinary queue
B) Single ended queue
C) Circular queue
D) Priority queue

Ans;- (B) Single ended queue

12. The property of binary tree is

A) The first subset is called left subtree
B) The second subtree is called right subtree
C) The root cannot contain NULL
D) The right subtree can be empty

Ans:- (D) The right subtree can be empty

13. State true or false.
i) The degree of root node is always zero.
ii) Nodes that are not root and not leaf are called as internal nodes.

A) True, True
B) True, False
C) False, True
D) False, False

Ans:- (C) False, True

14. Any node is the path from the root to the node is called

A) Successor node
B) Ancestor node
C) Internal node
D) None of the above

An:- (B) Ancestor node

15. State true of false.
i) A node is a parent if it has successor nodes.
ii) A node is child node if out degree is one.

A) True, True
B) True, False
C) False, True
D) False, False

Ans:- (B) True, False

16. ………………. is not an operation performed on linear list
a) Insertion b) Deletion c) Retrieval d) Traversal

A) only a,b and c
B) only a and b
C) All of the above
D) None of the above

Ans:- (D) None of the above

17. Which is/are the application(s) of stack

A) Function calls
B) Large number Arithmetic
C) Evaluation of arithmetic expressions
D) All of the above

Ans:- (D) All of the above

18. A …………… is an acyclic digraph, which has only one node with indegree 0, and other nodes have in-degree 1.

A) Directed tree
B) Undirected tree
C) Dis-joint tree
D) Direction oriented tree

Ans:- (A) Directed tree

19. …………………. Is a directed tree in which outdegree of each node is less than or equal to two

A) Unary tree
B) Binary tree
C) Trinary tree
D) Both B and C

Ans:- (B) Binary tree

20. State true or false.
i) An empty tree is also a binary tree.
ii) In strictly binary tree, the out-degree of every node is either o or
2.

A) True, False
B) False, True
C) True, True
D) False, False

Ans:- (C) True, True

21. Which of the following data structures are indexed structures?

A) Linear arrays
B) Linked lists
C) Queue
D) Stack

Ans:- (A) Linear arrays

22. Which of the following data structure store the homogeneous data elements?

A) Arrays
B) Records
C) Pointers
D) Lists

Ans:- (B) Records

23. When new data are to be inserted into a data structure, but there is not available space; this situation is usually called ….

A) Underflow
B) overflow
C) houseful
D) saturated

Ans:- (B) overflow

24. A data structure where elements can be added or removed at either end but not in the middle is called …

A) linked lists
B) stacks
C) queues
D) dequeue

Ans:- (D) dequeue

25. Operations on a data structure may be …..

A) creation
B) destruction
C) selection
D) all of the above

Ans:- (D) all of the above

26. The way in which the data item or items are logically related defines …..

A) storage structure
B) data structure
C) data relationship
D) data operation

Ans:- (B) data structure

27. Which of the following are the operations applicable an primitive data structures?

A) create
B) destroy
C) update
D) all of the above

Ans:- (D) all of the above

28. The use of pointers to refer elements of a data structure in which elements are logically adjacent is ….

A) pointers
B) linked allocation
C) stack
D) queue

Ans:- (B) linked allocation

29. Arrays are best data structures

A) for relatively permanent collections of data
B) for the size of the structure and the data in the structure are constantly changing
C) for both of above situation
D) for non of above situation

Ans:- (A) for relatively permanent collections of data

30. Which of the following statement is false?

A) Arrays are dense lists and static data structure.
B) Data elements in linked list need not be stored in adjacent space in memory
C) Pointers store the next data element of a list.
D) Linked lists are collection of the nodes that contain information part and next pointer.

Ans:- (C) Pointers store the next data element of a list.

Data Structures and Algorithms Multiple Choice Questions:- Part One

  1. Which if the following is/are the levels of implementation of data structure

A) Abstract level
B) Application level
C) Implementation level
D) All of the above

Ans:- (D) All of the above

2. A binary search tree whose left subtree and right subtree differ in hight by at most 1 unit is called ……

A) AVL tree
B) Red-black tree
C) Lemma tree
D) None of the above

Ans:- (A) AVL tree

3. ……………….. level is where the model becomes compatible executable code

A) Abstract level
B) Application level
C) Implementation level
D) All of the above

Ans:- (C) Implementation level

4. Stack is also called as

A) Last in first out
B) First in last out
C) Last in last out
D) First in first out

Ans:- (A) Last in first out

5. Which of the following is true about the characteristics of abstract data types?
i) It exports a type.
ii) It exports a set of operations

A) True, False
B) False, True
C) True, True
D) False, False

Ans:- (C) True, True

6. …………… is not the component of data structure.

A) Operations
B) Storage Structures
C) Algorithms
D) None of above

Ans:- (D) None of above

7. Which of the following is not the part of ADT description?

A) Data
B) Operations
C) Both of the above
D) None of the above

Ans:- (D) None of the above

8. Inserting an item into the stack when stack is not full is called …………. Operation and deletion of item form the stack, when stack is not empty is called ………..operation

A) push, pop
B) pop, push
C) insert, delete
D) delete, insert

Ans:- (A) push, pop

9. ……………. Is a pile in which items are added at one end and removed from the other.

A) Stack
B) Queue
C) List
D) None of the above

Ans:- (B) Queue

10. ………… is very useful in situation when data have to stored and then retrieved in reverse order.

A) Stack
B) Queue
C) List
D) Link list

Ans:- (A) Stack

11. Which data structure allows deleting data elements from and inserting at rear?

A) Stacks
B) Queues
C) Dequeues
D) Binary search tree

Ans:- (B) Queues

12. Which of the following data structure can’t store the non-homogeneous data elements?

A) Arrays
B) Records
C) Pointers
D) Stacks

Ans:- (A) Arrays

13. A ……. is a data structure that organizes data similar to a line in the supermarket, where the first one in line is the first one out.

A) Queue linked list
B) Stacks linked list
C) Both of them
D) Neither of them

Ans:- (A) Queue linked list

14. Which of the following is non-liner data structure?

A) Stacks
B) List
C) Strings
D) Trees

Ans:- (D) Trees

15. Herder node is used as sentinel in …..

A) Graphs
B) Stacks
C) Binary tree
D) Queues

Ans:- (C) Binary tree

16. Which data structure is used in breadth first search of a graph to hold nodes?

A) Stack
B) queue
C) Tree
D) Array

Ans:- (B) queue

17. Identify the data structure which allows deletions at both ends of the list but insertion at only one end

A) Input restricted dequeue
B) Output restricted dequeue
C) Priority queues
D) Stack

Ans:- (A) Input restricted dequeue

18. Which of the following data structure is non linear type?

A) Strings
B) Lists
C) Stacks
D) Graph

Ans:- (D) Graph

19. Which of the following data structure is linear type?

A) Graph
B) Trees
C) Binary tree
D) Stack

Ans:- (D) Stack

20. To represent hierarchical relationship between elements, Which data structure is suitable?

A) Dequeue
B) Priority
C) Tree
D) Graph

Ans:- (C) Tree

21. A directed graph is ………………. if there is a path from each vertex to every other vertex in the digraph

A) Weakly connected
B) Strongly Connected
C) Tightly Connected
D) Linearly Connected

Ans:- (B) Strongly Connected

22. In the …………….. traversal we process all of a vertex’s descendants before we move to an adjacent vertex.

A) Depth First
B) Breadth First
C) With First
D) Depth Limited

Ans:- (A) Depth First

23. State True of False.
i) Network is a graph that has weights or costs associated with it.
ii) An undirected graph which contains no cycles is called a forest.
iii) A graph is said to be complete if there is no edge between every pair of vertices.

A) True, False, True
B) True, True, False
C) True, True, True
D) False, True, True

Ans:- (B) True, True, False

24. Match the following.
a) Completeness i) How long does it take to find a solution
b) Time Complexity ii) How much memory need to perform the search.
c) Space Complexity iii) Is the strategy guaranteed to find the solution when there in one

A) a-iii, b-ii, c-i
B) a-i, b-ii, c-iii
C) a-iii, b-i, c-ii
D) a-i, b-iii, c-ii

Ans:- (C) a-iii, b-i, c-ii

25. The number of comparisons done by sequential search is ………………

A) (N/2)+1
B) (N+1)/2
C) (N-1)/2
D) (N+2)/2

Ans:- (B) (N+1)/2

26. In ……………, search start at the beginning of the list and check every element in the list

A) Linear search
B) Binary search
C) Hash Search
D) Binary Tree search

Ans:- (A) Linear search

27. State True or False.
i) Binary search is used for searching in a sorted array.
ii) The time complexity of binary search is O(login)

A) True, False
B) False, True
C) False, False
D) True, True

Ans:- (D) True, True

28. Which of the following is not the internal sort?

A) Insertion Sort
B) Bubble Sort
C) Merge Sort
D) Heap Sort

Ans:- (C) Merge Sort

29. State True or False.
i) An undirected graph which contains no cycles is called forest.
ii) A graph is said to be complete if there is an edge between every pair of vertices.

A) True, True
B) False, True
C) False, False
D) True, False

Ans:- (A) True, True

30. A graph is said to be ……………… if the vertices can be split into two sets V1 and V2 such there are no edges between two vertices of V1 or two vertices of V2.

A) Partite
B) Bipartite
C) Rooted
D) Bisects

Ans:- (B) Bipartite

Visual Basic Multiple Choice Questions on “Web Applications”

. 1. A ________ is a special computer that serves webpages.

a) Server
b) Host
c) Client
d) Router

Answer: (a) Server

Clarification: A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server. That machine may be a dedicated server or used for other purposes as well.

2. A _______ computer requests web pages from the server.

a) Server
b) Host
c) Client
d) Router

Answer: (c) Client

Clarification: A given application in a computer may function as a client with requests for services from other programs and also as a server of requests from other programs.

3. A ________ web page is not interactive and is used to display information only

a) Dynamic
b) Static
c) Server
d) Client

Answer: (b) Static

Clarification: static web page (sometimes called a flat page/stationary page) is a web page that is delivered to the user exactly as stored, in contrast to dynamic web pages which are generated by a web application.

4. A ________ web page is not interactive and is used to display information only.

a) Dynamic
b) Static
c) Server
d) Client

Answer: (a) Dynamic

Clarification: A dynamic web page is a web page that displays different content each time it’s viewed. For example, the page may change with the time of day, the user that accesses the webpage, or the type of user interaction.

5. ASP is a ________ language that tells the client’s browser how to render the page on the computer screen

a) Markup
b) Programming
c) Structured Query
d) Data storage

Answer: (a) Markup

Clarification: An Active Server Page (ASP) is an HTML page that includes one or more scripts (small embedded programs) that are processed on a Microsoft Web server before the page is sent to the user. An ASP is somewhat similar to a server-side include or a common gateway interface (CGI) application in that all involve programs that run on the server, usually tailoring a page for the user. Typically, the script in the Web page at the server uses input received as the result of the user’s request for the page to access data from a database and then builds or customizes the page on the fly before sending it to the requestor.

6. Text that cannot be changed by the user is termed as _____ text.

a) Constant
b) Dynamic
c) Static
d) Hardcoded

Answer: (c) Static

Clarification: Static text is the standard type of text. Static text is used when you need to add text to the Stage, Buttons or any text that doesn’t need to change or load from an external source. Static implies that the text content (words) does not change not that it is Static.

7. The first webpage added to an application is the _______ page

a) Default.aspx
b) Home.aspx
c) Index.aspx
d) Start.aspx

Answer: (a) Default.aspx

Clarification: The first webpage added to an application is the default.aspx page. You can create any sort of application in that page. If the first webpage is the home page, you can name it as home.aspx.

8. _______ property sets the border of an image

a) Border Property
b) Border
c) Surround
d) Line

Answer: (a) Border Property

Clarification: Border property sets border of an image. You can set border width , border style etc. using this property.

9. _______ initializes a new instance of Line class.

a) BorderProperty
b) Border
c) Surround
d) Line()

Answer: (d) Line()

Clarification: Line() is a consrtructor that initializes a new instance of a Line class. It has properties such as ActualHeight, ActualWidth etc.

10. The background color of a Web page is determined by the ______ property

a) BackColor
b) BackgroundColor
c) BgColor
d) BColor

Answer: (c) BgColor


Clarification: Bgcolor is used to define the background colour of a web page. You can set the Bgcolor by giving the colour name or by giving hex such as Bgcolour =”FFFF”.





RDBMS Multiple Choice Questions on “Web Fundamentals”

  1. Browsers use a standardized syntax called

a) TCP/IP
b) HTML
c) XML
d) Java

Answer: (b) HTML

Clarification: The Hypertext Markup Language [HTML] is the standardized syntax used by the browsers which supports formatted information as well as forms based interfaces.

2. A ______ is a globally unique name for every document that can be accessed on the Web

a) ID
b) UCL
c) URL
d) UML

Answer: (c) URL

Clarification: A URL (Uniform resource locator) is a globally unique name for every document that can be accessed on the Web.

3. What is the full form of HTTP?

a) Hyper Text Trial Program
b) Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
c) Hyper Text Technology Protocol
d) Hyper Text Trial Protocol

Answer: (b) Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

Clarification: HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. This is a protocol for transferring HTML documents

4. A ______ is a program running on the server which accepts requests from a browser and sends HTML documents

a) Web server
b) Web transmitter
c) Web intermediate
d) Web multitasker

Answer: (a) Web server

Clarification: A Web Server is a program running on the server which accepts requests from a browser and sends HTML documents. The browser and the web server communicate via HTTP.

5. What is the use of CGI?

a) It specifies the path of data transfer
b) It specifies how the server communicates with the application programs
c) It charts out error handling procedures in case an error arises
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: (b) It specifies how the server communicates with the application programs

Clarification: CGI specifies how the server communicates with application programs. The application program communicates with a database server in order to get data.

6. The extra information of a site maintained at the client end is called as _______.

a) Cookie
b) Password
c) History
d) Sessions

Answer: (a) Cookie

Clarification: The extra information of a site maintained at the client end is called as cookie. It is a small piece of text containing identifying information with an associated name.

7. State true or false: HTTP is connectionless

a) True
b) False

Answer: (a) True

Clarification: HTTP is connectionless because most computer have a limit on the simultaneous connections they can accommodate. If this limit is exceeded then access is denied to further users

8. What is the full form of CGI?

a) Common graphics interface
b) Common gateway interface
c) Common gateway internet
d) Common gateway information

Answer: (b) Common gateway interface

Clarification: The full form of CGI is Common Gateway Interface. This defines how a web server communicates with an application program.

9. Which of the following functions are done by a web server?

a) Accept requests from a web browser
b) Sends back results in HTML
c) Executes programs with arguments supplied by the user
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: (d) All of the mentioned

Clarification: A web server accepts requests from a web browser and sends back results in HTML. The most important feature of a web server is to execute programs with arguments supplied by the user.

10. What is the function of the cascading style sheet

a) Allows us to edit the HTML document
b) It is an IDE that allows us to write HTML codes more efficiently
c) It allows us to use the same style on multiple HTML documents
d) It acts as an intermediary to provide a variety of information services

Answer: (c) It allows us to use the same style on multiple HTML documents

Clarification: The cascading style sheet allows us to use the same style sheet on multiple HTML documents allowing us to maintain a distinctive but uniform look on all the pages of a Web site.








Computer Networks Multiple Choice Questions on “World Wide Web”

  1. A piece of icon or image on a web page associated with another webpage is called

a) url
b) hyperlink
c) plugin
d) extension

Answer: (b) hyperlink

Clarification: URLs are locators for resources present on the World Wide Web. A plugin provides extra functionality to the webpage. An extension provides modification allowance for the core functionality of a webpage. Hyperlink is piece of icon or image on a web page associated with another webpage

2. Dynamic web page ______

a) is same every time whenever it displays
b) generates on demand by a program or a request from browser
c) both is same every time whenever it displays and generates on demand by a program or a request from browser
d) is different always in a predefined order

Answer: (b) generates on demand by a program or a request from browser

Clarification: A dynamic web page provides different content every time the user opens it based on some events like new additions or time of the day. Languages such as JavaScript are used to respond to client-side events while languages such as PHP as used to respond to server-side events

3. What is a web browser?

a) a program that can display a web page
b) a program used to view html documents
c) it enables user to access the resources of internet
d) all of the mentioned

Answer: (d) all of the mentioned

Clarification: A web browser is an application program that is used to access the World Wide Web resources, applications and websites. Some examples of web browsers are Google Chrome, Internet Explorer and Safari

4. Common gateway interface is used to _______

a) generate executable files from web content by web server
b) generate web pages
c) stream videos
d) download media files

Answer: (a) generate executable files from web server

Clarification: CGI is an interface through servers can run execute console-based executable files on a web server that generates dynamic web pages. A CGI script executes only when a request is made. The script then generates HTML.

5. URL stands for ________

a) unique reference label
b) uniform reference label
c) uniform resource locator
d) unique resource locator

Answer: (c) uniform resource locator

Clarification: The Uniform Resource Locator is a locator for the resource to be located by HTTP on the World Wide Web. The URL is derived from the Uniform Resource Identifier.

6. A web cookie is a small piece of data that is _______

a) sent from a website and stored in user’s web browser while a user is browsing a website
b) sent from user and stored in the server while a user is browsing a website
c) sent from root server to all servers
d) sent from the root server to other root servers

Answer: (a) sent from a website and stored in user’s web browser while a user is browsing a website

Clarification: A web cookie is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored in user’s web browser while a user is browsing the website and is used to remember stateful information about the user’s operations on the website. This can help the website provide a better browsing experience to the user

7. Which one of the following is not used to generate dynamic web pages?

a) PHP
b) ASP.NET
c) JSP
d) CSS

Answer: (d) CSS

Clarification: CSS alone cannot be used to generate dynamic web pages as it does not provide many event handling functions. It can be used along with JavaScript to generate dynamic web pages which are visually compelling.

8. An alternative to JavaScript on windows platform is _______

a) VBScript
b) ASP.NET
c) JSP
d) PHP

Answer: (a) VBScript

Clarification: VBScript is a general-purpose, lightweight and active scripting language which can be used on Microsoft Visual Basic. It was first released in 1996.

9. What is document object model (DOM)?

a) convention for representing and interacting with objects in html documents
b) application programming interface
c) hierarchy of objects in ASP.NET
d) scripting language

Answer: (a) convention for representing and interacting with objects in html documents

Clarification: DOM is a hierarchical model i.e. a tree used to represent an HTML or XML document. Every node of the tree an object that represents a part of the document.

10. AJAX stands for _______

a) asynchronous javascript and xml
b) advanced JSP and xml
c) asynchronous JSP and xml
d) advanced javascript and xml

Answer: (a) asynchronous javascript and

Clarification: AJAX is a group of technologies that works on the client-side to create asynchronous web applications. It is used to modify only a part of a webpage and not the whole webpage whenever some event occurs.






WEB TECHNOLOGIES Multiple Choice Questions :- Part One

1. Which of the following options is correct with regard to HTML?

(a) It is a modelling language
(b) It is a DTP language
(c) It is a partial programming language
(d) It is used to structure documents

Ans:- (d) It is used to structure documents

2. Consider the following statement: GET /cgi-bin/dispenser.pl&want=whatsnew.html HTTP/1.0Which of the following options is a correct one?

(a) The above statement is a part of a request from a web client
(b) The above statement is a part of the input to a CGI program
(c) want is a variable and whatsnew.html is a value
(d) want is a variable and whatsnew.html HTTP/1.0 is the value
(e) dispenser.pl may be a CGI program

Ans :- (e) dispenser.pl may be a CGI program

3. When trying to access a URL, the following message is displayed on the browser: Server; Error 403 What could be the reason for the message?

(a) The requested HTML file is not available
(b) The URL refers to a CGI script and the header of the script does not indicate where the interpreter is located
(c) The path to the interpreter of the script file is invalid
(d) The first line of the output from the script is not a valid HTTP header
(e) The requested HTML file or CGI script has insufficient permission.

Ans:- (e) The requested HTML file or CGI script has insufficient permission.

4. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding multimedia on the web?

(a) The MPEG, AIFF and WAV are cross-platform formats
(b) The MPEG, AU and MIDI are cross-platform formats
(c) The SND format has a relatively low fidelity
(d) VRML can be used to model and display 3D interactive graphics
(e) The dynsrc attribute in the  element can be used to include videos in web pages.

Ans:- (a) The MPEG, AIFF and WAV are cross-platform formats

5. What would be the colors of the RGB where the hexadecimal values are #FF0000, #00FF00 and #0000FF respectively?

(a) Blue, Green, Red
(b) Green, Blue, Red
(c) Green, Red, Blue
(d) Red, Blue, Green
(e) Red, Green, Blue

Ans:- (e) Red, Green, Blue

6. The elements and have the following characteristics

(a) Element inherits properties defined for in a stylesheet
(b) and have no real meanings as html tags unless stylesheet is applied
(c) Elements and define content to be inline or block-level
(d) and are used as alternatives for the element
(e) is used inside element.

Ans:- (c) Elements and define content to be inline or block-level

7. Which of the following statement is not true regarding JavaScript?

(a) JavaScript is a loosely typed language
(b) JavaScript is an object-based language
(c) JavaScript is event driven
(d) A JavaScript embedded in an HTML document is compiled and executed by the client browser
(e) JavaScript can not run in stand-alone mode (without a browser).

Ans:- (d) A JavaScript embedded in an HTML document is compiled and executed by the client browser

8. The following is a web-page:

<html>
<head><title>JavaScript</title></head>
<body bgcolor=”#0000ff”>
<script language=”JavaScript”>
<!–document.write(“<h1> hello world </h1>”); //–>
</script>
</body>
</html>

When the above web page is loaded into a browser, what will happen?

(a) The body of the web page will not contain any text
(b) The body of the web page will contain the text “<h1> hello world </h1>”
(c) The body of the web page will contain the text “hello world” as an H1 heading
(d) The background color of the web page will be green
(e) document.write(“<h1> hello world </h1 >”); is a comment

Ans:- (a) The body of the web page will not contain any text

9. The following statements are about three important browser objects in JavaScript.

I. window object : The highest of all objects in the client-side JavaScript object hierarchy.
II. navigator object : A collection of information about the browser. Useful in browser sniffing.
III. document object : Provides access to the document being viewed.
Which of the above statements is/are true?

(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (I) and (II) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above

Ans:- (e) All (I), (II) and (III) above

10. Consider the following script:

<html>
<head><title>JavaScript</title></head>
<body>
<script language=”JavaScript”>
var a=80
var b=(a==80 ? “pass” :”fail”);
document.write(b)
</script>
</body>
</html>

What will be the output of the above script?

(a) pass
(b) fail
(c) null
(d) 80
(e) Error at line 6

Ans:- (a) pass

11. The following web page is loaded into a web server:

<html>
<head><title>JavaScript question</title></head>
<body>
<script language=”JavaScript”>
book = new Array(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8);
document.write(book[1]);
book[10]=10;
document.write(book[10]);
</script>
</body>
</html>

Once the above web page is loaded what will its body contain?

(a) 210
(b) 110
(c) 110
(d) 210
(e) Error at line 7

Ans:- (d) 210

12. Which of the following statements is false regarding “Cookies”?

(a) Cookies are programs which run in the background of the web-client
(b) Cookies have the potential of being used to violate the privacy of users
(c) Cookies are very helpful in keeping track of users in developing online shopping cart applications, personalized portals and in advertising on web sites
(d) Cookies cannot contain more than 4Kb of data
(e) Cookies usually contain data in the form of name = value pairs.

Ans:- (a) Cookies are programs which run in the background of the web-client

13. Consider the following script:

<html>
<head><title>JavaScript</title></head>
<body>
<script language=”JavaScript”>
document.write((125/5)%12);
</script>
</body>
</html>

What would be the output of the above script?

(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2.083
(d) 3
(e) 25%12.

Ans:- (b) 1

14. Which of the following statements is true regarding HTTP?

(a) Web browsers use only HTTP as a communication protocol with servers
(b) It does not maintain any connection information on previous transactions
(c) It is designed to route information based on content
(d) It refers to resources using their Universal Resource Identifier (URI)
(e) It does not carry browser information to the server.

Ans:- (b) It does not maintain any connection information on previous transactions

15. Which of the following is true about XHTML?

(a) It is a new hybrid technology that is different from both XML and HTML
(b) It has totally replaced HTML as the tool for building Web pages
(c) It is a reformulation of HTML in XML
(d) One cannot use it to create Web pages
(e) It has to be converted to HTML using a style sheet.

Ans:- (c) It is a reformulation of HTML in XML

16. While working on a JavaScript project, in your JavaScript application, which function would you use to send messages to users requesting for text input?

(a) Display()
(b) Prompt()
(c) Alert()
(d) GetInput()
(e) Confirm().

Ans:- (b) Prompt()

17. Consider the following syntax:

When would you use the above syntax?

(a) When defining an image map
(b) When referring back to homepage.html
(c) When referring to World Map
(d) When embedding a graphic in JavaScript
(e) When aligning an image on a web page using JavaScript

Ans:- (a) When defining an image map

18. Which of the following is true about client-side script use in HTML documents?

(a) Java, JavaScript, Jscript and VBScript are used on many web sites as Scripting languages
(b) Client side scripts are executed on the server and the resulting page will be downloaded and interpreted by the browser
(c) Client-side scripts increase the network traffic on execution of the script
(d) Client-side scripts can perform many functions such as data validation and provide interactive feedback to the user
(e) Browsers need plug-ins to execute client-side scripts

Ans:- (d) Client-side scripts can perform many functions such as data validation and provide interactive feedback to the user

19. Consider the following entries in a Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) file.

P {colour: blue; background-colour: white; border-colour: red; border-left: solid}
BODY {colour: black; border-colour: green} What is the color of text in a paragraph of an HTML document that uses the above style sheet?

(a) green
(b) blue
(c) black
(d) red
(e) White

Ans:- (b) blue

20. Which property does one use to align text to the right side of a block-level element in Cascading Style Sheets?

(a) horizontal-align
(b) align
(c) block-align
(d) justify
(e) text-align

Ans:- (e) text-align

21. Which of the following statements is false about event handlers in JavaScript?

(a) They can be included with input tags
(b) They can be associated with end of file processing for a database application
(c) They can be included with the form tag
(d) They are generally used to call functions when triggered
(e) They can be used to trigger server-side scripts

Ans:- (b) They can be associated with end of file processing for a database application

22. What method is used to specify a container’s layout in JSP?

(a) setLayout()
(b) Layout()
(c) setContainerLayout()
(d) ContainerLayout()
(e) setConLayout().

Ans:- (a) setLayout()

23. Which method of the Component class is used to set the position and size of a component in JSP?

(a) setSize()
(b) setBounds()
(c) setPosition()
(d) setPositionSize()
(e) setSizePosition().

Ans:- (b) setBounds()

24. What value does readLine() return when it has reached the end of a file in JSP?

(a) Last character in the file
(b) False
(c) Null
(d) EOF
(e) True.

Ans:- (c) Null

25. Which class in JSP provides the capability to implement a growable array of objects?

(a) Array class
(b) GrowAbleArray class
(c) Container class
(d) Vector class
(e) DynamicArray class

Ans;- (d) Vector class

26. In JSP, the classes that allow primitive types to be accessed as objects are known as

(a) Primitive classes
(b) Object classes
(c) Boxing classes
(d) UnBoxing classes
(e) Wrapped classes

Ans:- (e) Wrapped classes

27. In JSP, a Canvas object provides access to a Graphics object via one of its method called:

(a) getCanvas()
(b) getGraphics()
(c) paint()
(d) getPaint()
(e) accessGraphics().

Ans:- (c) paint()

28. In ASP the function which returns the current system date is:

(a) getDate()
(b) Date()
(c) Now()
(d) getCurrentDate()
(e) CurrentDate().

Ans:- (b) Date()

29. In ASP the function which returns an expression formatted as a date or time is:

(a) FormatDateOrTime()
(b) FormatDateAndTime()
(c) FormatTimeDate()
(d) FormatDateTime()
(e) FormatDT().

Ans:- (d) FormatDateTime()

30. The function returns a Boolean value that indicates whether a specified expression can be evaluated as a number; in ASP is

(a) IsNumeric()
(b) IsNumber()
(c) IsNotNumeric()
(d) IsNotNumber()
(e) IsNumberOrNot().

Ans:- (a) IsNumeric()